Effects of Non-hydrocarbon Liquids on Particulate Emissions of Flares

  • Author / Creator
    Kazemimanesh, Mohsen
  • To investigate the effects of non-hydrocarbon liquids found in the produced water following fracturing operations on particulate emissions of flares, a small-scale experiment with methane diffusion flame was used. Size distributions, mass-mobility relationships, effective density, volatility, and elemental analysis of particulate emissions from unseeded and seeded flames were obtained. To mimic real flaring, another pilot-scale experiment using a 2-in. diameter burner with a methane-based turbulent diffusion flame with flow conditions and fuel composition typical of flares in the petroleum industry was used. Particle morphology was determined using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Particle size distributions, soot volume fractions, and emission factors were obtained using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII). The results showed that emission factor depended on the liquid mass ratio. Distilled water and HCl solution decreased emission factor. Emission factor was orders of magnitude higher for NaCl-doped flames; however, majority of particles were NaCl and soot emission was suppressed in this case.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Fall 2014
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Master of Science
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.